Archiv Volume II


Pospíšilová, Ľ, Tesařová, M.: Organic carbon in arable soils. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 1

In this paper different forms of organic carbon in arable soil are reported. Results of long -- term field experiment are presented. Long -- term field experiments contribute more reliable information about changes in soil organic carbon as influenced by different types of soil management. We focused our work on stabile forms of organic carbon (total Corg content, sum of humic substances, sum of humic acids and sum of fulvic acids) as well as at labile organic carbon (= active forms).
Object of our study was Eutric Cambisol (locality Vatín, Bohemian -- Moravian Upland) which was under grass, integrated crop rotation system and productive crop rotation system within the period 1999--2006. Besides experimental data about different forms of carbon we provided chemical and optical characterization of humic acids isolated from the soil. Nondestructive spectral methods such as UV--VIS, infrared, fluorescence and 13C--NMR spectroscopy were used.
According to our results the total Corg content was low. Average value was 1.4 % in productive crop rotation system, 1.5 % in integrated crop rotation system. While in control (grassy) soil the content of Corg was 1.9 %. Statistically significant differences were found between grassy soil and both crop rotation sytems. Clabile (= active forms) content was about 650 mg / kg in control (grassy) soil, which was much more than in both crop variants; statistically significant differences were found. Sum of humic substances was in average 11 mg / kg; no statistically significant differences were found. Sum of humic acids was in average 4 mg / kg; no statistically significant differences were found. Sum of fulvic acids was in average 6 mg / kg; statistically significant differences were found. In elemental composition there were no differences in C, N, H, O contents. Spectral analysis, especially 13C--NMR spectroscopy identified isolated humic acids as young acids with a relatively high content of ali¬pha¬tic groups and low content of aromatic groups.
We also came to the conclusion that a light textured arable soil can contain a low content of organic carbon.

Keywords: arable soil; organic carbon; humic acids; fulvic acids; humification degree; UV--VIS; SFS; FTIR and 13C NMR spectroscopy

Král, P., Hrázský, J., Filák, M.: Evaluation of fasteners withdrawal resistance in various wood-based materials. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 2

This work deals with fasteners withdrawal resistance in wood-based materials. The experiment itself was carried out according to newly defined methodology developed, which is a part of this work. Within the experiment were investigated forces necessary for the screws withdrawal from chosen wood-based materials. The resistance of materials to the fasteners withdrawal was calculated on basis of measured values. The following materials were tested: laminate particleboard, plywood with core of cork, plywood with core of cork and surface layer of cork, plywood with surface finish of phenolic film and with glass fiber. Universal self-bored screws with proportions 3.5 × 35, 4.5 × 35 and 5.0 × 35 were used as fasteners. These screws were pulled out both from the face and from the edges of tested materials. The obtained data were statistically processed with program Statistica 8.0. The results revealed that the material proved better resistance to the fasteners withdrawal when the screws were inserted into the face than into the edge of the tested material. During the work it was found that the material composition is the crucial factor influencing the resistance of screws in wood-based materials. The best load bearing capacity was proven by the plywood of surface finish of phenolic film and with glass fiber, up to three times higher than laminate particleboard. In conclusion the chosen wood-based materials are suitable for connection with screws stressed in tension.

Keywords: withdrawal strength, withdrawal capacity, particleboard, plywood, screw

ŠEBÁNEK, J.: Ninety years of research into plant morphogenesis and hormonology at the MUAF in Brno. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 3

The scientific school of experimental plant morphogenesis at the Department of Plant Biology of the University of Agriculture (UOA) in Brno (now MUAF) is completing the 90th year of its existence. It was founded by Professor Rudolf Dostál who began experimenting with plants under the direction of Bohumil Němec, professor at Charles University in Prague. As early as 1908 Dostál voiced a hypothesis that there exist substances regulating plant growth (plant hormones) and 4 years later he discovered that the effect of regulating substances coming from the growing buds is necessary for the production of adventitious roots.

In 1919 Dostál was appointed associate professor of plant physiology at the UOA in Brno. One of his most important discoveries of the 1920's was refutation of the theory on the proportionality of mass in bud regeneration and the discovery of sexual reproduction and regeneration in the sea alga Caulerpa prolifera. In 1933, when auxin was discovered supporting the hypothesis of the existence of plant hormones, Dostál's school began to explore stem apical dominance in pea seedlings by means of natural auxin released from Rhizopus suinus and proved the inhibiting effect of the mature leaf on the growth of its axillary bud. At the same time it was discovered that by contrast the young leaves stimulate bud growth and thickening growth of reserve roots. The discovery of the new long-short-day photoperiodic adaptation evoked world response. Methods were elaborated of rooting stem cuts of woody species by means of hormones and discovering the tuberigenic effect of ethylene.

In the 1950's research into exogenous and endogenous gibberellins in plant growth correlations was launched, especially in the cotyledon/axillary bud correlation in pea seedlings. Research into the principle of the hormonal action of growth retardants and 2,3,5-triiodbenzoic acid was also launched. In the 1960's the attraction of hormones in growth correlation by means of 32P was studied. It turned up that auxin attracts not only substances of a trophic but also regulating nature (e.g. gibberellins). Using models of pea seedlings it was proved that the decline in apical dominance was accompanied by a drop in auxins and abscissic acid and increase in cytokinins. The same was later proved also when studying the branching of lilac. The 1970's were marked namely by investigations into the hormonal principle of the action of chlorocholinechloride, paclobutrazol and chlo­ro­ethyl­phos­pho­nic acid (CEPA) as sources of ethylene. Endogenous and exogenous investigations of the hormonal effects in root/stem correlations were carried out.

In the late 1970's research into apical dominance was launched using radioactive hormones and radionuclides were also used to study hormone transport and assimilate distribution (particularly in cereals). Hormonal research in the 1980's and 1990's was also focused on jasmonic acid and bras­si­no­lids and research methods progressed to the level of molecular biology, for instance in connection with changes in the content of concrete genes after the weakening of apical dominance. For a long time the research into dormancy has been focused on the effect of gibberellins, abscissic acid and ethylene, recently also on the effect of NO.

Since the 1970's close attention has been devoted to in vitro morphogenesis; later on especially to somatic embryogenesis. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cell nuclei connected with DNA fission was detected at the origin of early somatic embryos of spruce. Gradually also information about the hormonal aspects of leaf abscission intensified. By application of CEPA as the source of the stress hormone of ethylene accelerating abscission it was possible to test the resistance of the individual woody species to toxic effects of air pollution. Some types of hormones (namely cytokinins) can reduce the effects of toxic substances including the effect of heavy metals.

Keywords: plant hormones and growth correlations; apical dominance; correlation effects of leaves, cotyledons and roots; hormonal transport; leaf abscission; morphogenesis in vitro; apoptosis

Sukop, I., Šťastný, J.: Annual development of the macrozoobenthos of the Křemelná River (the Šumava Mountains, Czech Republic). Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 4

Křemelná River is a typical mountain river, the greater part of stream is a trout zone (epirhithral and metarhithral). The present work gives the results of the research of the annual development of the macrozoobenthos in the Šumava Mountains (Czech Republic), carried out in the years 2007 to 2008. Zoobenthos samples were collected by Surber sampler (sampling area 1225 cm2). Qualitative and quantitative samplings were carried out on each sites under study. Zoobenthos was fixed by 4% formaldehyde. Biomass of the zoobenthos was determined weighing preserved materials after a standard period of three months. Summer temperature of water in the epirhitron did not exceed 16°C. The values of summer water temperature ranged between 9.5 and 15.9 °C with the average value of 12.8 °C. Also pH values were very important for the occurrence of the macrozoobenthos in trout zones. Especially amphipod Gammarus fossarum a typical taxon of mountains streamsis represented only scarce in the Bavarian Forest and the Šumava Mountains. The unfavourable conditions (low pH values and low calcium concentrations) are probably the reason for its scarcity. Values of pH oscillated within dimension 5.63--8.72, with the average value of 6.65 in 2007--2008.

The running waters in area Šumava Mountains have low content of ions in comparison with another runnig waters of the Czech Republic. The conductivity values ranged between 12 and 40µS . cm−1 with theaverage value of 20.0µS . cm−1 in 2007--2008. Oxygen content and water saturation are very important factors for living conditions of zoobenthos in mountain waters. Water saturation in epirhithral and metarhithral zones corresponds to approximately 100%. In our research, water saturation ranged between 80 and 120% with the average value of 103.5%.

The majority of surveys dealing with zoobenthos of the Šumava Mountains streams studied only some groups of zoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Odonata, Heteroptera, Trichoptera). The contributions devoted to the whole spectrum of zoobenthos are less frequent see e.g. Winkler (1956), Bauer et al. (1988), Schöll (1989), partial Růžičková et al. (2004 a, 4 b), Fricová et. al. (2007). Altogether, 334 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the trout zones of the Bavarian Forest and Šumava Mountains. Among them, 171 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the trout zone of the Křemelná River, namely Turbellaria (1 taxon), Oligochaeta (4? taxa), Gastropoda (2 taxa), Bivalvia (1 taxon), Amphipoda (1 taxon), Hydracarina (2? taxa), Ephemeroptera (26 taxa), Plecoptera (34 taxa), Megaloptera (1 taxon), Trichoptera (49 taxa), Coleoptera (8 taxa), Diptera (42 taxa).

The data about quantity (abundance and biomass) of the zoobenthos trout zone of mountain rivers of this region are rarely available. The mean values of the zoobenthos abundance and biomass in the Křemelná River were 6 374 ind . m−2 and 12.9 g . m−2, respectively.

In 2007--2008, the values of saprobic indices (Si) ranged between 0.41 and 1.28 (xenosaprobity -- oligosaprobity) with the average values of the saprobic index of 0.71 for the whole Křemelná River.

Keywords: annual development of the macrozoobenthos; quality and quantity of zoobenthos; indices of saprobity; Křemelná River; Šumava Mountains

Kudová, D.: Methodology of environment analysis of a University sports club. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 5

The aim of this monograph is to offer methodical procedure of analysis of external and internal environment in the situation of a university sports club. The provided proposal of possible procedure of environmental analysis in the branch of university sports clubs can become an appropriate informational source not only for particular university sports clubs, but also for their stakeholders, specifically for representatives of universities the clubs are connected with.

Proposed methodology of analysis is also verified by its application -- situation analysis of external environment, identification of interest groups and situation analysis of internal environment of university sports club of MUAF in Brno is performed including formulation of key and critical factors of the club and possible future strategies based on these influences. As a part of analysis there is formulated and processed an evaluation questionnaire for members of Mendel University sports club, which can be used as a general evaluation form in any similar conditions, and a questionnaire distributed to chairmen of all university sports clubs in Moravia. Their answers provide a basis for characteristics of current situation in the external environment of university sports clubs.

Conclusion includes practical recommendations emanating from the verification of proposed methodology, which can be divided into three parts:

· recommendations for the Mendel university sports club;

· recommendations with general validity for university sports clubs concerning strategic management of sports club, and specifically propose suitable strategies for the future;

· overview of the key and critical factors identified for university sports clubs in general.

The way of effective management of a university sports club can be summarized into consequent steps when management should perform the below mentioned components concerning the future existence of a university sports club, namely its strategy and mission. It should clearly state who its customers are, what sources of funding it will use, the processes and activities leading to fulfilment of the mission, and identify what are the main values provided. It should also contain the plan of professional growth of employees, identification of key and critical factors of success, which should be paid attention to.

Keywords: sport management; University sports club; analysis; external environment; internal environment; strategy; balanced scorecard

Buňka, F., Buňková, L., Kráčmar, S.: Basic principles of processed cheese production. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 6

The monograph provides a comprehensive presentation of knowledge gained in the area of basic principles of processed cheese production and deals with selected properties and effects which can influence this product. Firstly, it covers the characteristics of milk and natural cheeses, which represent basic raw materials for processed cheese production. Also, the assortment of processed cheeses is illustrated. Furthermore, other ingredients for processed cheese production are described -- traditional ones: quark, dairy fat (butter, cream or anhydrous dairy fat), rework (cheese which has already been processed), drinking water, additives influencing colour and flavour, emulsifying salts and "new" ingredients and additives, e.g. various dairy concentrates (whey powder, milk powder with a different fat content, casein and its salts, dairy coprecipitates, whey proteins, etc.) and raw materials or additives of non-dairy origin -- hydrocolloids and emulsifiers.

Basic physically-chemical principles of processed cheese production, including clarification of the necessity to add emulsifying salts or chemicals with similar properties, are introduced. Moreover, chemicals traditionally used as emulsifying salts, with the main focus on sodium salts of phosphates and polyphosphates, are defined. Further attention is given to a discontinuous way of processed cheese production in its individual phases: preparation of the mixture intended for melting, dosage of emulsifying salts, the actual melting process of the mixture prepared, packing of the melt, cooling, storage and distribution.

An important part is formed by an analysis of the individual factors which can influence the consistency of final products. The work is mainly aimed at characteristics of the effects related to the composition of ingredients within the mixture, the way of processing and cooling of the melt and the duration and conditions of storage.

Further chapters are devoted to selected hydrocolloids (mainly native and modified starch, carageenans and pectins) and emulsifiers (mainly monoglycerides) which are used or have potential to be used in the dairy industry.

Also, microbiological quality of processed cheese and possible ways of influencing this quality are mentioned. Different hygiene markers of production as well as the most common and most serious contaminants are presented. Moreover, the chapter deals with the possibilities of improving the shelf-life of processed cheese. Last but not least, the basic knowledge of sterilized processed cheeses as a specific group of products is provided.

Keywords: processed cheese; emulsifying agents; technology; factors influencing the consistency of processed cheese; hydrocolloids; monoglycerides; nutrition

Popelka, O., Šťastný, J.: Using artificial intelligence methods for agricultural and economic data prediction. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 7

In this paper we describe two-level grammatical evolution (TLGE), which is a new method, designed to solve prediction tasks on agricultural and economical data. This method belongs to the group of artificial intelligence algorithms together with many other algorithms -- such as artificial neural networks, expert systems, etc. This method is based on the combination of two existing evolutionary algorithms -- grammatical evolution and differential evolution. Both methods are based on genetic algorithms.

The paper describes general properties of genetic algorithms, which form the base of the methods used. The core part of the paper is the description of modified grammatical evolution algorithm (grammatical evolution with backward processing) together with the description of two-level grammatical evolution. Although this method is applicable to different types of problems, this paper focuses solely on applications to non-linear regression problems. The section Applications and methods of evaluation describes non-linear least square method and also the application of two-level grammatical evolution on agricultural and economic data.

Two-level grammatical evolution is stochastic computational method based on computer simulation of evolutionary process. This method has no complex mathematical foundation. It means that generally it cannot be proven that a solution will be found. On the other hand this allows us to solve problems without the necessity to adhere to certain limitations of mathematical analysis methods or statistical methods (such as linearity, normal distribution, etc.). The described method can be used to solve problems which do not follow these limitations and where enforcing such limitations is hardly acceptable.

Grammatical evolution is based on a genetic algorithm which is extended with a context-free grammar processor. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to generate symbolic solutions in an arbitrary formal language. Solutions in this form can be further reused without limitations since they are independent on the computational system.

Grammatical evolution alone can also be used to optimize parameters of a symbolic solution. The grammar to generate such numbers is however more complex than the grammar to generate the whole structure. Using the method described in this paper this problem can be solved more efficiently.

Two-level grammatical evolution is an automated method, which requires only the input of training data to solve a single type of problem (e.g. regression task). This creates a major advantage in solving non-linear regression problems with economic or agricultural data.

Keywords: non-linear regression; non-linear least square method; genetic algorithms; grammatical evolution; differential evolution

Konečný, V., Trenz, O.: Decision support with artifical intelligence. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 8

This publication is focused on the utilization of basic methods of artificial intelligence for solving economical problems. Individual chapters are focused on using multilayer neural networks, self-learning neural networks, fuzzy expert systems, selection from variants in fuzzy environment and genetic algorithms. Theoretical bases are enriched by findings from realization of software applications and solving particular management tasks.

First chapter provides basic information about individual methods, characteristics of problems, and focuses on choosing for the best approach which provides solutions of the problems.

Multilayer neural networks are discussed in the second chapter. Detailed theoretical part is intended mostly for informatics involved in realization of software applications implementing multilayer neural networks. Derived relations and conclusions are applied in experimental model that is used for realization of decision models for credit loan acceptance, product classification and prediction of economical variables based on time series.

Classification of objects using self-learning neural networks and their visual representation in plane, as well as the theory of learning process regulation are objects of the third chapter. As an example, the classification of seventy organizations into three and five groups based on fifteen indicators and product classification are used results of multilayer neural network.

The fourth chapter presents utilization of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic that enable using vague concepts for realization of decision rules. First, a simple fuzzy expert system for calculation of fire insurance realized by standalone software application is presented. Selection from possible variants in fuzzy environment is demonstrated on an example of a typical management requirement for initiation of a new product production.

The last chapter demonstrates an evolutionary approach for solving problems represented by genetic algorithm. The existence of a set of solutions for a given task and quantitative evaluations of partial solutions is the prerequisite for the task. Better solutions are found by application of genetic algorithm (i.e. cross-over, mutation, and selection). This approach is demonstrated on finding sui­ta­ble dislocation of distribution centers and on traveling salesman problem.

Keywords: decision support; artificial intelligence; neural networks; self-learning; claasification; prediction; fuzzy environment; genetic algorithm

Stehlíková, B., Tirpáková, A., Poměnková, J., Markechova, D.: Research methodology and statistical inference. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 9

Mathematical methods have wide range of application in natural, economic and social sciences. Mass usage of personal computer and accessibility of statistic programs facilitates the application of statistic methods on one hand. On the other hand, it causes the decrease of interest in gaining the compendium about the existing statistic methods. The book contains the broad range of descriptive statistic characteristic, point and interval estimates of parameters, as well as a number of tens of statistic tests. The overview of discrete and continuous probability distribution is the part of the book, too. The description of each method, besides the individual character with the emphasis on the postulates and special attributes stated in notes, points to the relation with other methods, or/and to the special cases. The book also contains the overview of basic methods of spatial statistics, which appears in the Slovak literature rarely. The book enables the reader to manage the orientation in methods enabling the exploitation of information comprised in data and understanding of wider relations.

With regards to broad range of statistic methods, the book is assigned to the students of the third degree of university studies, as well as to research and scientific employees who make use of statistic methods in their occupation. It should also serve as a useful tool for all the concerned in understanding the fundamentals of used statistic methods.

Keywords: research methodology; statistic method; mathematical statistics

ŽALUD, Z. (ed.): Climate change and Czech agriculture -- impacts and adaptations. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 10

The objective of the presented work is to summarize the composite author's previous research knowledge about the climate change impact on field crops growing.

Climate-focused chapters analyse the course of climate in the past, the principle of climate change or the expected scenarios of climate development. However, the core of the publication consists in the relationships among meteorological elements and the selected components of uncontrolled and, above all, controlled ecosystems. It is dealt with the examination of the length of growing season, agroclimatic conditions or the change of production areas and other environmental factors connected with climate change. The greatest part of the publication is devoted to the growth and development of selected field crops (winter wheat and spring barley mainly) and the impacts of climate-conditioned risks. Drought should be mentioned here, as the most significant hydrometeorological extreme for the agrosystem, and the questions of the spread of diseases and pests.

The individual chapters are often completed with concrete example studies which represent the result of the composite author's long-term research.

The analyses of possible adaptation measures with the focus on field crops growing and alternative sources of energy are a logical part of the study. This is involved in chapters concentrating on the suggestions of adaptation measures from the point of view of cultivation, crop rotation, phytopathology, technology of soil tillage and biomass production in the form of fast-growing woods. Final chapters summarize the relevant facts from the areas of insurance and distributing information.

Keywords: climate change; adaptation analysis, climate variability, global climate models, field crop, drought, pest, disease, short rotation coppice

Syrovátka, P., Blažková, I.: Elasticity of demand functions within commodity chain of food-corn in Czech Republic. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 11

This monograph is focused on the econometric analysis of the elasticity of demand functions within the food-corn chain in the Czech Republic. For the evaluation of the demand sensitivity, the relevant elasticity coefficients were derived. The defined demand-elasticity coefficients are dimensionless therefore it was possible to compare the demand sensitivity at the particular markets of the studied food-agricultural chain. The simulations of the elasticity coefficients were based on the developed multilevel econometric model of the demand functions in the food-corn chain. Developed demand model was statistically and economically tested before its application. The quarterly databases of CZSO from 1995 to 2005 were used for the estimation of parameters in the demand model. At the level of consumer markets, the own and cross price elasticity and income elasticity of the average Czech household's demand for two categories: bread (1); rolls, pastries and biscuits (2) were evaluated. Within the analysis of the domestic consumer markets, the own price elasticity and income elasticity of the average Czech household's demand for the wheat flour was studies too. The own price elasticity of demand for the investigated categories of bakery products was subsequently analysed at the seller-distributors' markets. At the processing markets, the own price elasticity was evaluated within the baking enterprises' demand for wheat and rye flour. Finally, the price demand elasticity of the flour-milling enterprises for wheat and rye was also analysed in the food-corn chain. In some cases, the auto-regression specification of demand models allowed the evaluation of auto-demand relationships, thus the coefficients of auto-demand elasticity of different orders were defined.

Keywords: commodity chain; corn; vertical demand system; primary demand; secondary demand; multistage demand model; demand elasticity

Bečvářová, V., Vinohradský, K., Zdráhal, I.: Czech agriculture and development of price environment in the EU common market. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2009, Vol. II, No. 12

The monograph presents the results of research dealing with the evaluation of the Czech agriculture development in the context of production and pricing aspects in the framework of the European agrarian market. Based upon the analysis of global changes in the pattern of agriculture in general, the common agricultural policy responses and concrete solutions in the EU member states evalution, the results of international comparisons of production, devoted to the development and evolution of agricultural producer prices in the markets of critical plant and animal commodities are specified and generalized since the early nineties of the twentieth century to the present.

The chosen methodological approach in the interactions of production, the position of the European region on the global stage, and commodity price developments offers an insight into the effects of CAP reform in relation to pricing policy and price formation of critical agricultural commodities in the original and the new European Union member states. In this context, deals with questions of causation dealing with reducing the amount of the Czech agriculture. The main changes in the agrarian sector of the business environment are characterized and the role of prices for agricultural producers in the differential process of development of agriculture in the expansion of the common market under current conditions is examined. The research results confirm that

· the pricing environment of agriculture in the EU unifies,

· it leads to the approximation of the level of agricultural producer prices in the old and the new member states,

· prices respond significantly to the development of world agriculture market.

The growing role of prices in the current model of agricultural markets, determinated demand throughout commodity chains, is demonstrated, as well as the conditions for competitiveness on emerging markets are specified there.

Key words: competitiveness; agricultural market; Common Agrarian Policy; price level

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ISSN 1803-2109 (Print)